First the crucible was measured in grams on a scale, and the mass of the crucible was 22.9g. Then a small amount of hydrate one was added to the crucible, and the mass of the crucible and hydrate one was 23.4g. Afterwards,hydrate one was observed to be blue, grainy, sparkly, bumpy, and course. To find the calculated mass of the unknown hydrate, subtract the mass of the cool crucible from the mass of the cool crucible and unknown hydrate, which gives a mass 0.5g. Tongs were used to put the crucible with hydrate one over a flame, for about five minutes, until it became dehydrated and became an anhydrate. Vapors came from the mystery hydrate (now an anhydrate) and afterwards the crucible was left to cool, for another approximate five minutes. The anhydrous salt was now observed to be white, slightly green, bumpy, grainy, and dull. The calculated mass of the anhydrated was measured to be 0.3g, which was derived by subtracting the mass of the cooled crucible and anhydrate by the mass of the cool crucible. The calculated mass of the water lost was found by subtracting the calculated mass of the unknown hydrate by the mass of the anhydrate and came out to be 0.2g. The calculated present mass water in the hyrdate was and was found by doing the calculated mass of water lost divided by the mass of the unknown hydrate multiplied by 100. which gives an answer of 40 percent. The hydate that was determind from the experiment was copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate.

Hydrate Three

First the crucible was measured in the unit grams on a scale and the mass of the crucible was 22.7 g. Then a very minimal amount of hydrate three was added to the crucible, and the mass of the crucible and hydrate three was 24.6g. After, hydrate three was observed as powdery, grainy, pink tinted, bumpy, and rough. Tongs were used to put the crucible with hydrate three over a flame, for approximately five minutes, until it became an anhydrate, which means it will become dehydrated. The anhydrous salt was observed as the same as the hydrate. The calculated mass of the unknown hydrate was measured to be 1.9 g, which was derived by subtracting the mass of the cool crucible and unknown hydrate and the mass of the cool crucible. The crucible was left to cool after it has finished heating for another approximate five minutes. The calculated mass of the cooled crucible and hydrate was measured to be 24.2g. The calculated mass of the anhydrated was measured to be 1.5 g, which was got by subtracting the mass of cooled crucible and anhydrate and the mass of cool crucible. The calculated mass of the water lost was found by subtracting the calculated mass of unknown hydrate and the calculated mass of anhydrate and came out to be 0.4g. The calculated present mass water in the hyrdate was and was found by doing 0.4g divided by 1.9 g and multiplied by 100 to give an estimate of 21 percent. The hydate that was determind from the experiment was closest to copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, but since hydrate one is that, the next closest thing hydrate three can be is manganese sulfate monohydrate.

## Methods Lab #16

Azaria, Sarah, Stanley, JuanHydrate OneFirst the crucible was measured in grams on a scale, and the mass of the crucible was 22.9g. Then a small amount of hydrate one was added to the crucible, and the mass of the crucible and hydrate one was 23.4g. Afterwards,hydrate one was observed to be blue, grainy, sparkly, bumpy, and course. To find the calculated mass of the unknown hydrate, subtract the mass of the cool crucible from the mass of the cool crucible and unknown hydrate, which gives a mass 0.5g. Tongs were used to put the crucible with hydrate one over a flame, for about five minutes, until it became dehydrated and became an anhydrate. Vapors came from the mystery hydrate (now an anhydrate) and afterwards the crucible was left to cool, for another approximate five minutes. The anhydrous salt was now observed to be white, slightly green, bumpy, grainy, and dull. The calculated mass of the anhydrated was measured to be 0.3g, which was derived by subtracting the mass of the cooled crucible and anhydrate by the mass of the cool crucible. The calculated mass of the water lost was found by subtracting the calculated mass of the unknown hydrate by the mass of the anhydrate and came out to be 0.2g. The calculated present mass water in the hyrdate was and was found by doing the calculated mass of water lost divided by the mass of the unknown hydrate multiplied by 100. which gives an answer of 40 percent. The hydate that was determind from the experiment was copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate.

Hydrate ThreeFirst the crucible was measured in the unit grams on a scale and the mass of the crucible was 22.7 g. Then a very minimal amount of hydrate three was added to the crucible, and the mass of the crucible and hydrate three was 24.6g. After, hydrate three was observed as powdery, grainy, pink tinted, bumpy, and rough. Tongs were used to put the crucible with hydrate three over a flame, for approximately five minutes, until it became an anhydrate, which means it will become dehydrated. The anhydrous salt was observed as the same as the hydrate. The calculated mass of the unknown hydrate was measured to be 1.9 g, which was derived by subtracting the mass of the cool crucible and unknown hydrate and the mass of the cool crucible. The crucible was left to cool after it has finished heating for another approximate five minutes. The calculated mass of the cooled crucible and hydrate was measured to be 24.2g. The calculated mass of the anhydrated was measured to be 1.5 g, which was got by subtracting the mass of cooled crucible and anhydrate and the mass of cool crucible. The calculated mass of the water lost was found by subtracting the calculated mass of unknown hydrate and the calculated mass of anhydrate and came out to be 0.4g. The calculated present mass water in the hyrdate was and was found by doing 0.4g divided by 1.9 g and multiplied by 100 to give an estimate of 21 percent. The hydate that was determind from the experiment was closest to copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, but since hydrate one is that, the next closest thing hydrate three can be is manganese sulfate monohydrate.